Analysis of Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Polymorphism in Samples of Iraqi Children with Autism
Aims: Is to find relationship between autism and absence of Glutathione-S-transferase (GSTs) genes GSTT1 and GSTM1, which are responsible for detoxification from the body. Methods: The present study includes the collection of (sixty) Iraqi children with a psychiatrist autism, the range of their age was 2-10 years. All blood samples were subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in laboratories of college of science (for Woman) Baghdad University for detection of the presence or absence of the gene encode for glutathione protein, and determination of the level of mercury and lead in blood samples. Results: The results of the study showed that the male: female ratio in autistic children is (5.7:1). The percentage of children who have (GSTM1-null) genotype was 55.9% higher than the children 44.0% with (GSTM1-positive) genotype while the frequency of (GSTT1-null) genotype (11.8%) was lower than that of (GSTT1-positive) genotype (88.1%) in the tested cohort. The numbers of parents who have a positive GSTM1 genotype are lower than other groups while the number of parents who have a positive GSTT1 is higher than in other groups. The present study reveals that the presence of high concentrations of mercury in the blood samples for all children with autism compared with their families and with the normal value. Conclusions: It is concluded from the present study that the deletion or absence of GSTM1 genotype in autistic children is higher than presence. This indicates that GSTM1-null genotype is related to the ASD but not as a risk factor for autism. The high frequency of GSTT1 positive genotype in autistic children and their parents is an indicator for a relationship between them. Further studies with large size of samples is needed to detect the activity of oxidative stress effect of enzymes encoded by alleles of GSTT1 genes.