Metabolic and Hormonal Changes Associated with Menopause
Background: Menopause is the perpetual cessation of menstruation due to defeat of ovarian follicular activity. Menopause in women leads to various physiological changes in the body. Objective: To study the metabolic and hormonal changes in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods: Forty five postmenopausal women were participated in the study and compared them with 45 premenopausal women who had a regular menstruation. They were attending the Medical City Hospital/ Obstetrics and Gynecology Department during the period from July 2016 until the end of December 2016. Anthropometric and physiological parameters were taken. Biochemical and hormonal parameters were measured for all individuals. Results: In this study, there was a significant increase in serum apolipoprotein E levels, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, urea, and thyroid stimulating hormone in postmenopausal group as compared to premenopausal group, (P ≤0.05). Serum total tri- and tetra-iodothyronine levels were decrease in postmenopausal group as compared to premenopausal group, but it was not significant. There was a significant increase in apolipoprotein E in postmenopausal women who had family history for dyslipidemia, (P =0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between apolipoprotein E and thyroid stimulating hormone. While there was a significant negative correlations among apolipoprotein E with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and estradiol, (P ≤ 0.01). Conclusions: The physiological basis and the complex interaction between thyroid hormones and apolipoprotein E and their relation with estradiol hormone among postmenopausal women trigger the lipids control mechanism.