Evaluation of Platelet Indices in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome
Background and Aims: Platelets have a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. It is well established that large platelets are involved in the development of atherosclerotic plaque and acute coronary syndromes. Aim: The aim of this study was to define the relationship between platelet volume indices and development of acute coronary syndrome. Patients and Methods: Our study included 50 patients admitted to AL-Yarmouk teaching hospital with acute coronarysyndrome;20 patients had unstable angina (UA) and 30 patients had acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosed on the basis of history, characteristic electrocardiographic changes, and increased cardiac biomarkers activities. Mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet crit (PCT), platelet count and platelet distribution width(PDW) were done using automatedhematology analysis and compared them with 50 age and sex matched healthy controls. Results: All platelet volume indices—mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet count and platelet crit(PCT)—were significantly raised in patients with AMI and UA. In patients with myocardial infarction, the mean values of MPV, PDW, platelet count and PCT were 10.9fL, 21.6%, 352.2(x 10^9/L) and 0.171% respectively; while in normal healthy control the mean values of these indices were 7.1fL, 15%, 256.2(x 10^9/L) and 0.153% respectively. A statistically significant difference in mean values of these indices was found (p value < 0.001). Similarly, in patients of unstable angina mean values of MPV, PDW, platelet count and PCT were 11.1fL, 21.1%, 300.7(x 10^9/L) and 0.165% respectively. Statistically significant differences in mean values of these indices were found. Conclusions: Larger platelets are haemostatically more active and are a risk factor for developing coronary thrombosis and subsequent acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina). Patients with larger platelets can easily be identified during routine hematological analysis and could possibly benefit from preventive treatment.